English Typing Test

instanceofthis,noraccordingtohimdoesanythingturnonthefactthatSection291ofthe GovernmentofIndiaAct,1935,wasamendedjustaboutafewweeksbeforeArticle368was finalised,andinwhichtheword'amendment'wassubstitutedforthewords'amendbywayof addition,variationorrepeal'.AccordingtohimwhatthisCourtmustconsideristhatsinceArticle 368arrangestorecreatetheConstituentAssemblyandexercisethesamepowerastheConstituent Assembly,itshouldbereadinawidesense. 1190.IfthepowerofamendmentislimitlessandParliamentcandoallthatthepetitionerscontend itcandounderArticle368,therespondentssayitshouldnotbeassumedthatpowerwillbeabused, butontheotherhandthepresumptionisthatitwillbeexercisedwiselyandreasonably,andthe onlyassuranceagainstanyabuseistherestraintexercisedbythepeopleonthelegislativeorgans. Buttherecognitionofthetruismthatpowercorruptsandabsolutepowercorruptsabsolutelyhas beenthewisdomthatmadepracticalmenofexperienceinnotonlydrawingupawritten Constitutionlimitingpowersofthelegislativeorgansbutinsecuringtoallcitizenscertainbasic rightsagainsttheState.Ifthefaithintherulersissogreatandthefaithinthepeopletocurb excessiveexerciseofpowerorabuseofitissopotent,thenoneneedsnoelaborateConstitution, becauseallthatisrequiredistomakeParliamentomni-potentandomni-sovereign.Butthisthe framersdidnotdoandhencethequestionwillbewhetherbyanamendmentunderArticle368,can Parliamenteffectametamorphosisofpowerbymakingitselfthesupremesovereign.Idonot supposethattheframerswereunawareoftheexampleswhichmustbefreshintheirmindsthat oncepoweriswrestedwhichdoesnotlegitimatelybelongtoalimitedlegislature,theeffortsto dislodgeitmustonlybebyapainfulprocessofstruggle,bloodshedandattrition-whatincommon parlancewouldbearevolution.Noonesuggeststhiswillbedone,butnooneshouldbecomplacent, thatthiswillnotbepossible,forifthereispoweritcanachieveevenadestructiveend.Itisagainst abuseofpowerthataConstitutionalstructureofpowerrelationshipwithchecksandbalancesis devisedandsafeguardsprovidedforwhetherexpresslyorbynecessaryimplication.Andthe questioniswhetherthereareanysuchinourConstitution,andifso,whethertheycanbedamaged ordestroyedbyanamendingpower? 1191.Thepetitioner'scounsel,learnedAdvocate-GeneralandthelearnedAttorney-Generalhave furnisheduswiththeextractsfromvariousDictionaries,andthelearnedAttorney-Generalhas furtherreferredustoalargenumberofConstitutionsinwhichtheword'amendment'orwordsused foramendingtheConstitutionhavebeenemployed,toshowthatthereisnodifferenceordistinction betweenthesewordsandtheword'amendment'.InalltheseConstitutions,subjecttowhichIsaidof theinappropriatenessofcomparingotherworldConstitutionsmadefordifferentpeoplewiththeir differingsocial,politicalandeconomicoutlook,thewordsusedareeither'amendment'ora combinationofthatwordwithothersoratotallydifferentword.InsomeoftheConstitutionsgiven inthecompilationsmadeavailabletouswheretheword'amendment'aloneisused,theexerciseof thepowerofamendmentwasinextricablylinkedwiththeratificationbythepeopleinwhomthe sovereigntyrests,eitherbyreferendumorbyconventionorbytheLegislatures.TheConstitutionsof othercountrieswhichhavebeenreferredto
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