English Typing Test

ACT: ConstitutionofIndiaFortySecondAmendment Act,Sections4and 55-WhethertheSectionsarebeyondtheamendingpower ofthe ParliamentunderArticle368oftheConstitutionandthereforevoid-WhethertheDirectivePrinciplesofStatePolicycontainedinPart IVoftheConstitutioncanhaveprimacy overthefundamentalrightsconferredbyPart111 ofthe Constitution-ConstitutionofIndiaArticles14,19,31C,38and368. HEADNOTE:MinervaMillsLtd.isalimitedcompanydealingintextiles.On August 20,1970,the CentralGovernmentappointedacommitteeundersectionISoftheIndustries(DevelopmentRegulation)Act, 1951tomake afullandcompleteinvestigation ofthe affairsoftheMinervaMillsLtdas itwasoftheopinionthattherehadbeenorwaslikelytobesubstantialfallinthevolumeofproduction.ThesaidCommitteesubmitteditsreporttotheCentralGovernmentinJanuary1971,onthebasisofwhichtheCentralGovernmentpassedanorderdatedOctober19,1971,undersection18Aofthe1951Act,authorizingtheNationalTextileCorporationLtd.,totakeoverthemanagementoftheMillsonthegroundthatitsaffairsarebeingmanagedinamanner highlydetrimentaltothepublicinterest. ThisundertakingwasnationalizedandtakenoverbytheCentralGovernmentundertheprovisionsoftheSickTextileUndertakings(Nationalisation)Act,1974.ThepetitionerschallengedtheconstitutionalvalidityofcertainprovisionsoftheSickTextileUndertakings(Nationalisation)Act,1974andoftheorderdated October19, 1971,theconstitutionalityoftheConstitution(Thirty-NinthAmendment)Act whichinserted theimpugnedNationalisationActasEntry105intheNinthScheduletotheConstitution,thevalidityofArticle31BoftheConstitutionandfinallytheconstitutionality ofsections4and55oftheConstitution(FortySecondAmendment)Act,1976ontheratioofthemajorityjudgmentinKesavanandaBharati'scase,namely,thoughbyArticle368oftheConstitutionParliamentisgiventhepowertoamendtheConstitution,thatpowercannotbeexercisedsoastodamagethebasicfeaturesoftheConstitutionorsoastodestroyitsbasicstructure.Opiningthatsections4and55ofthe Constitution(Forty Second Amendment)Actarevoidand beyond theamendingpoweroftheParliament,theCourtbythemajority(PerChandrachud.C.J.,onbehalfofhimself,A. Gupta.N.L.Untwalia&P.S.Kailasam,JJ.) HELD:(1) ThenewlyintroducedclauseSofArticle368transgressesthelimitationsontheamendingpowerofParliamentand ishenceunconstitutional.ItdemolishestheverypillarsonwhichthepreamblerestsbyempoweringtheParliamenttoexerciseitsconstituentpower withoutany"limitationwhatever". Noconstituentpowercanconceivablygohigherthanthesky-highpowerconferredbyclause(5),foriteven empowerstheParliamentto "repealtheprovisionsof thisConstitution",thatis tosay,toabrogatethedemocracy.207andsubstituteforitatotallyantitheticalformofGovernment.Thatcanmosteffectivelybeachieved,withoutcallingademocracyby
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