English Typing Test

ACT: ConstitutionofIndiaArticles14,19(1)(a)and 21--Personalliberty--Whetherrighttogoabroadispartof personalliberty--WhetheralawwhichComplieswithArticle 21hasstilltomeetthechallengeofArticle19--Nature andambitofArticle14--Judgingvaliditywithreferenceto directandinevitableeffect--Whethertherightunder Article19(1)(a)hasanygeographicallimitation. PassportsAct,1967-Ss.3,5,6,10(3)(c),10(5)--Whether s.10(3)(c)isviolativeofArticles14,19(1)(a)(b)& 21--Groundsforrefusingtograntpassport--Whetherthe powertoimpoundpassportarbitrary--"ingeneralpublic interest"ifvague. PrinciplesofNaturalJustice--Whetherappliesonlytoquasi judicialordersorappliestoadministrativeorders affectingrightsofcitizens--Whenstatutesilentwhether canbeimplied--Dutytoactjudiciallywhethercanbespelt out--Inurgentcaseswhetherprinciplesofnaturaljustice canapply. http://JUDIS.NIC.INSUPREMECOURTOFINDIAPage3of154 HEADNOTE: ThepetitionerwasissuedapassportonJune1,1976under thePassportAct,1967.Onthe4thofJuly1977,the petitionerreceivedaletterdated2ndJuly,1977,fromthe RegionalPassportOfficerDelhiintimatingtoherthatit wasdecidedbytheGovernmentofIndiatoimpoundher passportunders.10(3)(c)oftheAct"inpublicinterest". Thepetitionerwasrequiredtosurrenderherpassportwithin 7daysfromthereceiptofthatletter.Thepetitioner immediatelyaddressedalettertotheRegionalPassport Officerrequestinghimtofurnishacopyofthestatementof reasonsformakingtheorderasprovidedins.10(5).Areply wassentbytheGovernmentofIndia,MinistryofExternal Affairson6thJuly1977statinginteraliathatthe Governmentdecided"intheinterestofthegeneralpublic" nottofurnishhercopyofthestatementofreasonsforthe makingoftheorder.Thepetitionerthereuponfiledthe presentWritPetitionchallengingactionoftheGovernment in-impoundingherpassportanddecliningtogivereasons fordoingso.TheActwasenactedon24-4-67inviewofthe decisionofthisCourtinSatwantSinggSawhney’scase.The positionwhichobtainedpriortothecomingintoforceof theActwasthattherewasnolawregulatingtheissueof passportsforleavingtheshoresofIndiaandgoingabroad. Theissueofpassportwasentirelywithintheunguidedand unchannelleddiscretionoftheExecutive.InSatwant Singh’scase,thisCourtbellbyamajoritythatthe expression’personalliberty’inArticle21takesin,the rightoflocomotionandtravelabroadandunderArt.21no personcanbedeprivedofhisrighttogoabroadexcept accordingtotheprocedureestablishedbylaw.This decisionwasacceptedbytheParliamentandtheinfirmity pointedbutbyitwassetrightbytheenactmentofthe PassportsAct,1967.ThepreambleoftheActshowsthatit wasenactedtoprovidefortheissueofpassportandtravel documentstoregulatethedeparturefromIndiaofcitizens ofIndiaandotherpersonsandforincidentalandancillarymatters.Se ction3providesthatnopersonshalldenart fromorattempttodepartfromIndiaunlessheholdsinthis ’behalfavalidpassportortraveldocument.Section5(1) providesformakingofanapplicationforissueofa passportortraveldocumentforvisitingforeigncountry. Sub-section(2)ofsection5saysthatonreceiptofsuch applicationthePassportAuthority,aftermakingsuch enquiry,ifany,asitmayconsidernecessary,shall,by orderinwriting,issueorrefusetoissuethepassportor traveldocumentormakeorrefusetomakethatpassportor traveldocumentendorsementin 622 -respectofoneormoreoftheforeigncountriesspecified intheapplication.Sub-section(3)requiresthePassport Authoritywhereitrefusestoissuethepassportortravel documentortomakeanyendorsementtorecordinwritinga briefstatementofitsreasonsformakingsuchorder. Section6(1)laysdownthegroundsonwhichthePassport Authorityshallrefusetomakeanendorsementforvisiting anyforeigncountryandprovidesthatonnoothergroundthe endorsementshallberefused.Section6(2)specifiesthe groundsonwhichaloneandonnoothergroundsthePassport AuthorityshallrefusetoissuethePassportortravel documentforvisitinganyforeigncountryandamongst variousgroundssetouttherethelastisthatinthe opinionoftheCentralGovernmenttheissueofpassportor traveldocumenttotheapplicantwillnotbeinthepublic
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